Philosophy For Academic And Professional Purposes

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The analysis of a state in which there is a project, is required at every moment when there is a need to interfere with work progress. All work on the project begins with the analysis, all elements of the project are subject to the analysis: terms of performance of work, risk degree, finance, shots, course of design, deliveries and performance of construction and installation works, quality of results etc.

Functions of management are considered as the central concept: they are carried out at all levels of administrative activity, in each phase of implementation of the project, for all its processes and the operated objects (an element.

In the conditions of market economy of opportunities for investment there is a lot of. At the same time any enterprise has, as a rule, the limited free financial resources available to investment. Therefore, it is necessary to choose the optimum investment project.

Success of implementation of the project is defined by that, his plan in which interests of all of those who works on its realization are concentrated is how effectively carried out. But effective realization of a plan of the project is possible only at the coordinated purposeful development of all processes providing this realization i.e. at effective management of process of implementation of the project.

Objects of investments can be different in character. Costs of the land plots, buildings, the equipment can be typical object of capital investments. Besides costs of any acquisitions the enterprise should make also other numerous expenses which give profit only through the long period of time. Such expenses are, for example, investments into researches, improvement of production, long-term advertizing, a marketing network, reorganization of the enterprise and training of the personnel.

Investments can cover as a full scientific and technical and production cycle of creation of production (a resource, service), and its elements (stages): scientific researches, construction work, expansion or reconstruction of the operating production, the organization of new production or release of new production, utilization, etc.

As alternative to multiprojects the monoprojects having accurately outlined resource temporary, etc. the framework realized by uniform design team and representing separate investment social, etc. projects act.

The project can be defined as system of the elements connected among themselves. Communications between project elements, arising and developing in time, form process of its realization. In other words, process of implementation of the project is process of realization of certain communications between all its elements. From these positions the concept of management of projects can be defined as follows:

Management of the project as the form of business activity means that traffic control by financial and cash flows, and also relationship of Participants of the project cannot be purely bureaucratic, administrative act. Management of the project as the form of business assumes use of scientific bases of planning, management and the analysis.

It is impossible to give universal approach to division of process of implementation of the project into concrete phases. Solving for itself such problem, participants of the project can be guided by the role in the project, the experience and specific conditions of implementation of the project. Therefore division of the project into phases can be the most various — if only such division revealed some important control points at which approach additional information arrives and the possible directions of development of the project are analyzed.

Besides placement in the sphere of means of production, i.e. in the form of real investments, investments can also have financial character and mean acquisition of securities. In the Thesis real investments are considered.

As well as any universal remedy, methods of management of projects are focused on a certain average, "normal" project. The project manager's task — to define it that such this "normal" project. For this purpose allocate four major factors (classification a sign which define each specific project: