1 Didactic principles operating in traditional training — list them anew, without looking in the text, and compare the answer to the maintenance of a frame 11 — (form, do not ) partially a basis (bases) of training.
Circles in the separate ellipses symbolizing a program framework mean contents elements, pupils have to seize. Especially important elements act twice in the which are crossed between themselves. The arrow specifies a way on which there have to pass all pupils using the program. This way is in a straight line, from here and an origin by a program : rectilinear, or linear.
1 In traditional training we allocate the following principles: presentation; (the gradually accruing...); and... participations of pupils in the course of training; systematicity; durabilities of the acquired knowledge;...; g) communications of the theory with practice
14, V than distinction between the programmed training and training traditional from the point of view of the principles which are their cornerstone consists? (Answer in writing.) (If there are difficulties with the answer, study anew the corresponding fragment of the text
training on linear system as its principles follow from provisions of the concept of the tool doctrine characterized above can appear useful means of achievement of the mentioned changes thus, according to Skinner. Among them are among the major:
1 And, at last, a kind of the mixed program which resulted from an.. . and... programs, call the program as it was developed at university in Sheffield (Great Britain). Other kind of the mixed program is represented by the so-called block program developed in the Warsaw
1 Absence in didactic work kakoyogo-nibud from (how many?)... the principles to that we deal any more not with..., and it is rather with semi-programmed, or with programmed, training
Branched programming directly from tests of knowledge, to be exact — from those versions of such tests which are guided by tests of a choice. Many lines, the general with a socratic method of aiming of pupils at the correct answers after a exception false or incomplete are inherent in it. The basis of branched programming is formed by the following theoretical provisions:
The doctrine, according to Skinner — is process of development at the pupil of new ways of behavior or modification which already developed. The probability of that this subject will seize some new, desirable, from the point of view of the author of the program, way of behavior, new action or a certain knowledge, increases thanks to its repeated repetition. However this repetition should not be mechanical; its results have to trained and join in wider context.
According to Skinner, the author of a linear, process of the doctrine proceeds correctly and leads to good results when the pupil gradually acquires material steps and does not make thus mistakes
Thus, the basic between traditional (conventional) and training consists not so much in what principles are their cornerstone (because they are in many respects similar though, and are not identical), how many in what measure these principles can be realized in the sphere of each of them.
Elements of the programmed training, according to the same opinion, it is also possible to find in concepts of Gerbart and his pupils, and also Dewey, Trenbitsky * and other. It is possible to meet even the statement that, actually, all training without the rest finds room in these and therefore has the most traditional character: in a basis and programmed, and traditional the same didactic principles lie.
Principle of gradual growth of difficulty. That considerable number in the first framework of the so-called directing instructions, facilitate the pupil is a consequence of its observance filling of gaps in the text, gradually decreases therefore degree of difficulty of the program increases.
Thanks to the fourth principle of training, the principle of an.. . and contents of training, everyone (can, cannot) study at speed, for it, and also to study the material corresponding on difficulty to the level of its
1 Five principles of the programmed training (list them anew and compare the answer to the maintenance of a frame form the general basis of different types of programs, namely programs linear, branched and mixed